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Oil & Gas Oil exploration

Throughout the XXth and XXIst centuries oil is one of the most important minerals. Oil is found together with gaseous hydrocarbons at depths of tens meters to 5-6 km. However at depths over 4,5 — 5 km gas and gas condensate deposits with slight quantity of light distillates prevail. Maximum number of oil deposits are located at a depth of 1-3 km. At small depths and at natural exits to a terrestrial surface oil is transformed to heavy-bodied malta, semisolid asphalt and other entities, such as tar sands and bitumens.

The main collectors of oil are sand, sandstones, conglomerates, dolomite, limestones and other well permeable rocks concluded among such low permeable solids, as clays or gypsum. Under favorable conditions fractured metamorphic and igneous solids being in the neighbourhood with sedimentary petroliferous solids can be collectors.

Study of oil fields shows that the formation of petroleum deposits is caused by various structural forms of bends strata, stratigraphic ratios of formations and lithological solids features. Oil deposits differ from each other by the type of structural forms and conditions of their formation. Oil and gas deposits differ from each other in forms of traps collectors and formation conditions under which oil accumulates.

Oil production is a sub-sector of oil industry, the branch of economy which is engaged in mining of a mineral — oil. Oil production is a complex manufacturing process, including exploration, drilling and repair of wells, cleaning of crude oil from the water, sulfur, paraffin.

By means of modern methods of production of fluids or well fluids (including oil) are divided into:

- Fountain (output fluid is carried out by the pressure difference);

- Gas lift;

- Installation of electric centrifugal pump;

- Installation of electric screw pump;

- Rod pumps.

In modern conditions oil production is a scientifically based process that uses the results of the hydrodynamic modeling of field development. In the development of oil fields they pump fresh water into formation (to maintain the pressure in a formation), including mixtures of oil with associated gas (WAG) or various chemicals for enhanced oil recovery and control of water cut wells.

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