In coal-bearing deposits there are other types of georesources together with coal that are of consumer importance, such as raw materials for the construction industry, groundwater, coal-bed methane, precious metals and their compounds. For example, some coals are enriched with germanium.
The way of coal mining depends on depth of its bedding:
- open cast mining (open pit), if the depth of coal seams does not exceed 100 meters;
- underground coal mining (mine).
To extract coal from great depths they use mines. In the deepest mines in Russia they extract coal from over 1200 meters.
Russia has significant proven reserves of coal. Currently, they mine coal in 25 regions of the Russia, there are 16 coal basins and 85 municipal entities, 58 of which are coal-mining territories on the basis of city-forming coal enterprises. In addition to developing of its own mineral deposits, Russia has considerable experience in construction and modernization of coal and coal-processing enterprises abroad.
Since 1950 for foreign countries there were developed 38 projects of coal mines, 34 projects of coal pits, 16 projects coal preparation plants, including:
- in India: 7 projects of coal mines, 8 projects of coal pits, 2 projects of coal preparation plants;
- in China: 23 projects of coal mines, 9 projects of coal pits, 5 projects of coal preparation plants;
- in Vietnam: 3 projects of coal mines, 4 projects of coal pits, 4 projects of coal preparation plants;
- in Mongolia: 5 projects of coal pits;
- in Bulgaria: 7 projects of coal pits, 2 projects of coal preparation plants;
- in Romania: 2 projects of coal mines;
- in Jugoslavia: 2 projects of coal pits;
- in Korea: 3 projects of coal mines, 1 project of a coal pit, 1 project of coal preparation plants;
- in Iran: mine “Pabedana” and development of coal fields of Kerman area.
Currently, there is work on improving of technologies of coal mining, creation of more consummate equipment, further enhance of its technical level, quality and reliability; complexes with automated control are under construction. They develop technologies and facilities of coal extraction without the constant presence of people in the slaughtering.