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Infrastructure Transport infrastructure River ports

A port is a facility of transport infrastructure, located on a sea or river shore, containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. It has a set of special facilities for its service: piers, terminals, cranes, warehouses, terminals, auxiliary transport.

A port can have several berths equipped for docking of ships, landings and disembarkation of passengers, loadings and unloading of freights, fueling.

They distinguish the following ports:

  • seaport,
  • river port,
  • industrial port,
  • passenger port,
  • trade port,
  • cargo port,
  • naval bases.

There are sea and river stations for passenger service. For maintenance and repair of vessels they use dry and floating docks. In international ports there are special places called quarantines to isolate ships arrived in order to prevent the spread of infections.

Ports are usually located in bays or harbors, water area of which is protected from waves by natural ledges of shores or artificial protective structures - jetties. They also build ports in estuaries. Entrance to a port they generally mark by beacons.

A river port is a complex of buildings located on the land and waters of inland waterways. It is equipped to service passengers and vessels, as well as loading, unloading, receiving, storage and cargo issuance, interaction with other transport modes.

Shipbuilding and repair companies also have ports, they are called industrial ports. Industrial ports also includes ports serving large enterprises on delivery of raw materials and components and the export of finished products. Within a unified industrial port complex there is sometimes a combination of fish and trade ports, vessel repair facilities and fish factories.

Cargo transshipment operations on vessels are subdivided into coastal, when a ship is moored to the jetty, and raids, when loading/unloading is made at offshore terminals or afloat.

Coastal port operations are divided into three types:

  • direct type, reloading (transshipment) of cargo is made directly from one mode to another (from the car to board the ship, from board the ship to the car; from pipeline to the board, from the board to the pipeline);

  • warehouse type (cumulative), when loading/unloading of cargo is made to the warehouse where it is completed, stored, and they carry out customs clearance;

  • mixed type, when one part of a cargo goes to the warehouse, and the other is loaded directly, for example, to wagons or feeder vessels.

The role of ports in the development of world trade is difficult to overestimate. The pace and forms of development of international, national and regional division of labor, efficiency of the international specialization and production cooperation, efficiency of reproduction processes both individual firms and entire states depend on the effectiveness of port functioning.

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