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Infrastructure Transport infrastructure Seaports

A modern seaport is a highly mechanized enterprise and transport hub. It has a natural or artificial harbors, piers for ships, hoisting machines, devices for supplying the fleet with fuel, water and food, a warehouse, elevators, refrigerators.

On the port territory there are administrative building with institutions that provide technical, navigational, legal and commercial service for navigation.

Warehouses of seaports are connected with railroad tracks, highways and the pipelines that link marine and continental transport. This allows a port to perform one of its primary tasks: to transmit cargoes from the sea modes of transport to others and back. In a port they make loading and unloading and provide safety of freights. Besides, a shipbuilding and ship repair are inseparably linked with ports. Transport work of seaports is characterized by two main indexes: capacity and goods turnover.

Seaports are divided into following types according to economic importance which is defined mainly by goods turnover:

  • global seaports, they have the largest goods turnover and serve mainly the intercontinental traffic;
  • international seaports, they have large goods turnover and connect countries;
  • interstate seaports, they provide connection between economic region of one country;
  • local seaports, they act within the coastal navigation, they can be deep-sea or not;
  • transit or node seaports; transit seaports deliver goods over long distances;
  • warm-water ports and freezing ports; the cost of a delivery of goods to freezing ports includes so-called "winter extra charge" associated with the need to use icebreakers in the waters near to such ports.

Modern seaport activity is characterized by significant processing of goods, for the most part it refers to seaports that are located in the territory with developed oil refining, chemical, metallurgical and engineering industry. Universal seaports process dry and bulk goods of wide range, receive and send different passenger vessels. Therefore, they have a high quality of mechanization and automation of cargo operations, comfortable passenger stations and well-planned piers. In such ports there is a highly developed service structure.

Nowadays the great importance is paid to specialized seaports where loading and unloading operations are performed mainly with goods of one kind. In some cases, such ports turn into a major center with a turnover of monoculture and close economic connection with the hinterland. Basically, it is typical for raw ports. In specialized seaports there are deep-water terminals.

Various kinds of specialized seaports allow to shorten an anchorage, reduce the cost of ships processing, introduce into cargo handling automation and mechanization. As a result, the performance of handling operations is greater in specialized seaports than in universal ones.

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