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Oil & Gas Oil transportation

Most of the oil fields are placed far away from the processing or marketing of oil, therefore we need to have fast and cost-effective transportation of the product. The cheapest and the most environmentally friendly way to transport oil is pipeline. They are set at intervals of 70-150 kilometers, depending on the route relief. At a distance of 10-30 kilometers they place latches in pipelines, allowing to block separate sites at accident. Pipes are made of superplastic steels that can withstand the temperature, mechanical and chemical effects, as well as reinforced plastic, which is not subject to corrosion and has a virtually unlimited service life.

Pipelines can be underground and terrestrial. Both types have their advantages. It is easier to build and operate terrestrial pipelines, and in case of an accident it is much easier to detect and repair damage to the pipe. At the same time, underground pipelines are less affected by changes in weather conditions. Pipes can also be carried on the seabed, but as it is technically difficult and costly, often underwater pipelines are used to transport oil within one oil-producing complex.

There are three types of pipelines:

  • trade pipeline that connects wells to various objects on crafts;

  • infield pipeline that leads from one field to another, or to trunk pipeline or relatively remote industrial facility located outside the oil-producing sector;

  • mainline pipeline that are paving to deliver oil from the fields to locations handling and consumption (eg, tank farms, oil terminals, refineries).

Application pipelines is economically profitable, they can work in any weather and at any time of the year. Nevertheless, the bulk of international traffic is carried by oil tankers:

  • low-tonnage tanker that is used for special purposes, including for the transportation of bitumen;

  • tanker of general purpose (16 500-24 999 tons), it is used for transportation of petroleum products;

  • medium-tonnage tanker (25 000-44 999 tons), it is used for transportation of both petroleum and oil;

  • large-capacity tanker (more than 45 000 tons), it is used for oil transportation by the sea;

  • barge (2000 - 5000 tons), it is used for oil transportation by rivers.

Oil and petroleum products are loaded into tankers from the shore, and are unloaded with the help of the ship pumps and pipelines installed in tankers and along the deck.

Another type of oil transportation is done by rail. It is a quick way at any season. However, oil transportation by rail requires 10 times more labor than the same by pipeline. Therefore, even in countries with an extensive rail network, this mode of oil transportation is subsidiary.

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