Russia is not the world leader in renewable energy.
The main types of alternative energy are:
1. Wind power, it is usage of the kinetic energy of the wind to generate electricity;
2. Solar power, it is generating electrical energy from the energy of sunlight.
Common shortcomings of wind and solar power are relatively low-power generators at their high cost. Also in both cases you always need accumulating power at night (for solar energy) and windless time (for wind energy).
3. Hydropower, is is conversion of water flow energy into electrical energy. In Russia, hydropower is 19 % of total electricity generation as a renewable source. The disadvantages of this type are the following: construction is conducted in places where there are large reserves of water energy; power plants are dangerous on the mountain rivers because of high seismic areas.
4. Geothermal energy, it is the use of natural heat of the Earth to generate electricity. The disadvantage of these plants is their limited geographical application: it is cost-effective to build geothermal power plants only in areas of tectonic activity.
5. Bioenergy, it is receiving energy from renewable resources, such as wood and peat. Application: electric power, thermal power generation and co-production of heat and electricity.
6. Hydrogen Energy. The use of hydrogen as an energy fuel has great prospects: hydrogen has a very high combustion efficiency, its resource practically is not limited, combustion of hydrogen is absolutely pollution-free. However, hydrogen is only energy carrier, and still there is a problem of energy production.
7. Tidal power uses the energy of tides. Necessity to coincide too many factors at power plant construction prevents from wide distribution of this type of alternative energy: you need not just simple seashore, but such coast, where the tides would be sufficiently strong and constant.
8. Wave energy can be the most promising on closer examination. Waves are concentrated energy of solar radiation and wind. Using wave can provide marine and coastal settlements with power. Waves can move ships. But while wave power plants were not beyond simple test pieces.