Mining industry is divided into the following groups:
- fuel extraction industry (oil, natural gas, coal, shale, peat);
- ore extraction industry (iron ore, manganese ore, mining of non-ferrous, precious and rare metals, radioactive elements);
- industry of non-metallic minerals and local building materials (mining of marble, granite, cement, chalk, dolomite, quartzite, kaolin, clay, gypsum, marl, feldspar, limestone);
mining chemical industry (mining of apatite, potash, nepheline, nitrate, iron pyrites, boron ores, phosphate raw materials);
hydro-mineral industry (mineral underground water, water supply).
Mining industry is a major branch of the world economy. Russia has huge potential resources of various kinds of raw materials and fuel; it is on the 1st place in the world on proven reserves of coal, peat, iron and manganese ore, bauxite, copper, lead, nickel, tungsten; it has large reserves of oil, natural gas and other minerals that can satisfy the needs of the state and other countries where the raw materials are exported.
Mining products occupy the 1st place on transportation of goods by rail (transportation of coal and coke, petroleum goods, ores and mineral building materials).
Geological exploration precedes the process of mining. Exploration of mineral deposits is a set of research works carried out for the purpose of detecting and evaluation of mineral resources. During geological survey they reveal the following parameters of mineral deposits:
- geological structure of mineral deposits;
- spatial location, occurrence, shape and size of deposits;
- quantity and quality of mineral resources;
- technological properties of the deposits and the factors that determine the conditions of the field development.
Mining companies are engaged in exploration, production and processing of raw materials and mineral resources with the help of special machines and facilities. Machinery for the mining industry are machines designed to perform operations associated with the development of the mineral deposit by mining companies.
Significant share in exports of Russia are mining and metallurgical industry and minerals resources; the largest export component are: coal, ferrous and non-ferrous metals.