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Oil & Gas Gas tank farms and underground storage facilities

Natural gas storage requires special industrial facilities, construction of which provides for the regulation of seasonal fluctuations of gas consumption, the regulation of non-uniformity of gas exports and the creation of long-term gas reserves in case of force majeure at gas exploration or transportation.

Tank farm is a set of interrelated individual or groups of tanks for storage or accumulation of liquid hydrocarbons. Tank farms are equipped with technological pipelines, valves and pumps for inner transfers, systems of loss reduction products, security, extinguishing systems and automation tools.

For storage of the liquefied hydrocarbonic gases stationary and mobile reservoir caravans are used:

  • elevated tank farm, it is used for gas supply of industrial and agricultural enterprises;

  • underground tank farm, it is used for gas supply of industrial and municipal enterprises, individual residential and public buildings, as well as agricultural industry.

A unit consists of: tanks, pipelines strapping on the liquid and vapor phases, valves, pressure regulators, safety, locking and overflow devices, devices for monitoring the level of liquefied gases in tanks and evaporators.

Underground gas storage facility is a complex of engineering structures in layers collectors of geological structures, excavations, and also in the development capacities created in deposits of mineral salts. It is intended for downloading, storage and the subsequent selection of gas. The structure is the following: subsurface area, wells for various purposes, data collection and preparation of the gas, compressor plant.

Underground gas storage facilities are constructed near to the route of the main gas pipelines and the large gas-consuming centers for possibility of an operational covering of peak gas consumptions. They are made and used to compensate for unevenness (seasonal, weekly, daily) of gas consumption as well as for gas backup in case of accidents at gas pipelines and to form strategic reserves of gas.

Types of gas storage facilities

Gas storage facility is a geological structure or artificial reservoir used for gas storage. Work of storage is characterized by two key parameters — capacity and output. The first parameter describes the storage capacity - active and buffer gas volumes. The second index means the daily performance of the selection and gas pumping, the period of storage at maximum capacity.

To destination underground gas storage facilities are subdivided into:

  • basic storage, it is of regional importance and influences the gas transportation system and gas exploration companies;

  • regional storage, it is of district importance and influences consumer groups and parts of the gas transportation system;

  • local storage, it is of local importance and influences certain consumers.

By type of gas storage facilities they distinguish:

  • ground gas storage facility – gas-holder (for storage of natural gas in gaseous form) and isothermal tanks (for storage of the liquefied natural gas);

  • underground gas storage facilities, that mean gas storage in porous structures in salt caverns and mines.

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